Telugu is a region of India (and also it is a proposed state in INDIAN UNION)bordering the states of Maharashtra on North-West, Karnataka on West, Chattisgargh and Orissa on North, and Coastal Andhra region on East and Rayalaseema region on South; both these regions were part of Andhra state and were merged with Telangana region to form the current Andhra Pradesh state in 1956. The region has an area of 114,840 km2, and population of 30,696,520 per the 2001 census. The name is derived from the corrupted form of reference of the Telugu speaking population as “Telang” by the generations of Muslim rulers. The region lies on the Deccan plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Andhra Pradesh state. Telangana region has 10 districts: Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the state capital of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. The Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east.
On December 9, 2009, the Government of India announced that the process for the formation of Telangana state would be considered upon introduction and passage of a separation statement by the state assembly of Andhra Pradesh. The Government of India has since constituted a five member committee headed by Justice B. N. Srikrishna to study the feasibility of a separate Telangana state within the Indian Union.
The Telangana region is believed by some scholars to have been mentioned in the Mahabharata as the Telinga Kingdom, inhabited by the tribe known as Telavana, who fought on the Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata. There is also Pandavula Guhalu in Warangal district (where the Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham).
In Treta yuga, it is believed that Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana spent their life in exile at Parnashala on the banks of the Godavari river, which is about 25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District in the Telangana region.
Telangana has been the homeland to the Sathavahanas and Kakatiyas. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the first capital of the Sathavahanas before Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed coinage of Simukha, the first Satavahana emperor.
The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiyas, a Telugu dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 CE to 1323. Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta and Anakapalle in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar & Bastar (in modern day Chattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam & Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was also during his reign that the Golkonda fort was first constructed by the Kakatiyas. Rani Rudramadevi and Prataparudra were prominent kings from the Kakatiya dynasty.
Telangana then came under Muslim rule in 14th century by the Delhi Sultanate, followed by Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis, and the Mughals. As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate state known as Hyderabad. Later, Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire, and was the largest and most populous princely state in India. Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India’s Madras Presidency.
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